Insects are the most serious enemies of plants. In this article, we explain the detailed instructions about the most common pests, describe the symptoms of their presence, teach how to eliminate them and give the necessary preventive measures to prevent their occurrence.
The scale and pseudo-scale are sucking parasitic insects of the Hemiptera family, the superfamily of the scale insects, feeding on cell sap. On shoots, leaves, petioles and trunks, they look like bumps or brown wax droplets measuring 2-5 mm.
Solution: They can be easily removed with a fingernail; when pressed, a yellowish thick liquid is released from them. Leaf tissues under the scabbard are often discolored. A sticky bloom of insect secretions often appears on the leaves of the affected plant, as well as nearby plants. From the above, the pests are covered with waxy shields that protect them from the effects of contact insecticides, therefore, systemic preparations of intestinal action are the most effective.
The mealybug is a sucking insect related to scale insects, of the Hemiptera family, superfamily of the scale insects. It looks like a fluffy jointed rounded insect, about 3-5 mm, when crushed, an orange liquid is released. The colonies are like pieces of white cotton wool in the axils of leaves and shoots. With severe damage, colonies are also located on the leaves and trunks, often a sticky bloom appears on the leaves. The waxy coating makes the worm not very susceptible to contact agents.
Solution: The most effective in the fight against mealybug are systemic preparations of intestinal action. Alcohol treatment, treatment with a water-oil emulsion, replacement of the top layer of the soil, the main treatment with Aktara insecticide (spray with a solution of 4 g / 5 l and shed the soil with a solution of 1 g / 10 l, 4 times, interval 7-10 days) and auxiliary contiguous treatments (after 1-2 days) with Akarin, Agravertin, Iskra-bio, Karate, Inta-vir, Fitoverm (spraying with 1% solution, 4 times with an interval of 7-10 days).
Thrips are sucking insects that lay eggs in leaf tissue. It most often affects plants in dry air. It looks like a thin, long, 1-2 mm, often striped (sometimes black or light) front sight. Often the parasite itself is difficult to detect, only traces of damage are visible. The leaf is covered with strokes-passages of larvae, they often merge into rather extensive spots, on the upper side of the leaf the spots acquire a silvery sheen. The larval stage of development occurs in the thickness of the leaf and is therefore protected from the action of contact insecticides.
Solution: In the fight against thrips, the most effective are preparations of systemic intestinal action with maintenance treatment with contact insecticides. Hang sticky traps in blue and yellow. The main treatment with Aktara insecticide (spray with a solution of 4 g / 5 l and spill the soil with a solution of 1 g / 10 l, 4 times, interval 7-10 days) and auxiliary contiguous treatments with Akarin, Agravertin, Iskra-bio, Inta-vir, Fitoverm (spraying with 1% solution, 4 times with an interval of 7-10 days, Inta-vir 8 g / 10 l). If thrips is found, it is necessary to process all the plants in the house. Processing part of the collection may not produce the desired result.
Whitefly is a sucking parasitic insect from the Hemiptera family. On the affected plant, white small flies can be seen, white oval immobile larvae or empty molted skins on the underside of the leaf.
Solution: Yellow sticky traps, the main treatment with Aktara insecticide (spray with a solution of 4 g / 5 l and shed soil 1 g / 10 l, 4 times, interval 7-10 days) and auxiliary contiguous treatments with contact preparations Akarin, Agravertin, Iskra-bio, Inta-vir, Fitoverm (4 times with an interval of 7-10 days, Inta-vir 8 g / 10 l).
Aphids are sucking insects from the species of green, brown, black, 2 mm Hemiptera. Forms colonies mainly at the tops of the shoots. There are colonies of wingless and winged individuals. When the plant is located outdoors (on the ground) in the summer, ants are often indicators of damage, which feed on the sweet secretion of aphids; droplets of sticky honeydew are also observed on the leaves.
Solution: one or two treatments with Aktara (spraying at a concentration of 4 g / 5 L and watering at a concentration of 1 g / 10 L), Akarin, Agravertin or Iskra-bio (spraying with 5-8 ml / L), or another insecticide according to the instructions. During processing, insects may not die immediately, but after a few hours. All plants in the house should be treated as the aphids move easily.
Weevils are shiny small beetles with elongated to rounded body shapes. A distinctive feature is the presence of a rostrum (elongated part of the head). They feed on leaves, flowers, roots, sometimes being inside plant tissues. Often, adult insects feed on aerial parts of plants, and their larvae feed on roots. On indoor plants, the presence of a weevil can be identified by round or semicircular holes in the leaves. It is not possible to see the weevil right away, since it is nocturnal. Systemic preparations of intestinal action will be the most effective.
Solution: Manual assembly of adult insects, spraying with Aktara (4 g / 5 l), spilling soil with Aktara (1 g / 10 l), 4-fold processing every 7-10 days.
Spider mite refers to arachnid arthropods, feeds on cell sap through leaf bites. Signs of damage: on the underside of the leaf (sometimes on the upper side) there are small, about 0.5 mm, light grains (as if sprinkled with flour), with a massive defeat, a cobweb is visible. The leaf in the places of the bite becomes discolored, covered with small yellow spots. Subsequently, with a strong defeat, the leaf falls off.
Solution: Spray the plant with cold water, especially the underside of the leaf. For emergency assistance, you need to wash the plant in the shower and treat it with acaricides. In indoor conditions, it is better to use Vertimek, Fitoverm. However, these drugs do not work at all stages of the tick - at least three treatments are required at + 20 C after 10 days, or at + 30 C after 3-4 days. Treatment with Akarin, Agravertin, Neoron will also help (4-fold treatments with an interval of 7-10 days).
When using chemical plant protection products, it is necessary to strictly follow the instructions for use, which are placed on the packaging of drugs, as well as observe precautions when working with them. When choosing chemicals, buy the safest ones, which have a lower hazard class (III or IV). Spray treatments should be carried out on the balcony or in the open air.
It is not always possible to identify the pest at the very beginning, so you need to know the symptoms of diseases provoked by them. Prevention is always easier than cure.