Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) is an eastern North American pine. Its native range in Canada is east of the Rocky Mountains from the Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories to Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia, and the north-central and northeast of the United States from Minnesota to Maine, with the southernmost part of the range just into northwest Indiana and northwest Pennsylvania. It is also known as grey pine and scrub pine.
Pinus banksiana ranges from 9–22 m (30–72 ft) in height. Some jack pines are shrub-sized, due to poor growing conditions. They do not usually grow perfectly straight, resulting in an irregular shape similar to pitch pine (Pinus rigida). This pine often forms pure stands on sandy or rocky soil. It is fire-adapted to stand-replacing fires, with the cones remaining closed for many years, until a forest fire kills the mature trees and opens the cones, reseeding the burnt ground.
The leaves are in fascicles of two, needle-like, twisted, slightly yellowish-green, and 2–4 cm (3⁄4–1 1⁄2 in) long.
Jack pine cones are usually 5 cm (2 in) and curved at the tip. The cones are 3–5 cm (1 1⁄4–2 in) long, the scales with a small, fragile prickle that usually wears off before maturity, leaving the cones smooth.