The traditional transplanting of indoor plants implies careful removal of the old soil, spreading the roots on a hill of fresh soil, and filling up the soil from above. Small and medium-sized plants are transplanted after purchase and annually in the spring. For this process, you should pick up a proper pot. Pots vary in size, material, and drainage holes.
The roots of the plant must fit freely in the pot, while there should be another two to five centimeters from all sides to the walls. In a pot that is too tight, the flower will not grow and will constantly dry out, and in a pot that is too large, water will stagnate and the flower can rot. A few centimeters should also remain from the soil to the top edge of the pot so that the water does not overflow.
Some plants stretch their roots for several meters. In this case, you need to look at the bulk of the roots. Roots that are too long can be placed on the bottom in rings or pruned.
The materials from which the pots are made can be divided into water-permeable and waterproof. So, on the walls of a clay (terracotta) pot, after watering, wet spots appear, and after a few months, a white bloom from salts may appear. Such a pot breathes with its entire surface, evaporating water with its walls. It is suitable for plants whose soil does not need to be constantly wet: cacti, ficuses, monstera, epipremnum, philodendrons, sansevieria, and some orchids.
Waterproof materials are plastic and ceramics. Such a pot evaporates water only from above, the soil in it remains moist longer. It is easier to grow calatheas, ferns, begonias, and flowering plants in these pots. It is better not to use glass pots - the earth inside does not look aesthetically pleasing at all, algae and even fungi appear on the walls very quickly.
If you are an experienced grower, you can plant the composition in a glass florarium - a complex geometric shape with an open or closed top. This landing has many nuances, so beginners should look for special masterclasses.
A pot without a hole in the bottom is a planter. In the West, inside the planter, they hide a plastic pot in which the plant is sold. Plants are not transplanted, they are bought for several years - like a long-lasting bouquet. Many of us plant plants directly in pots. Such a plant cannot be watered abundantly - there is nowhere to go for extra water. If you want to take the flower to the shower, you will have to close the ground with a bag. Growing in pots requires experience and intuition.
For very moisture-loving plants, self-watering pots are sold (other names are smart watering, wick watering). In such a pot there is a separate reservoir of water, due to which the plant is constantly moistened. Self-irrigated pots are more expensive than regular pots, but they will help the plant survive seven to ten days of your vacation. The auto watering system can also be assembled by yourself.
The drainage is a layer of something hard and coarse at the bottom of the pot. On the one hand, it allows water to flow out more easily. On the other hand, the amount of drainage can adapt the shape of the pot to the root system of the plant. For example, a money tree, a Rowley's groundwork, or a sansevieria drainage needs to be placed more, because the roots of these plants do not go deep into the ground. The average volume of the drainage layer is one-third of the height of the pot.
Expanded clay is used as drainage, which is sold in all flower shops and supermarket departments. You can also add stones or broken shards to the pot.
You can close the hole in the bottom of the pot with a piece of synthetic fabric. So the ground will stop flowing out from below, and the pallet will be much cleaner.
Select or prepare the soil
What the roots of a plant are in is usually called a substrate. This is not always the usual land: plants can be grown in coconut fiber, pine bark, moss, fired clay, stones, synthetic materials, or in an aqueous solution with electrolytes.
Versatile peat-based substrates are suitable for most plants. Unfortunately, the composition on the packaging does not distinguish between good and bad soil. Bad soil is light, red in color, water on it collects in balls, does not go inside for a long time, gurgles on the surface. Over time, such soil compresses into a lump, lags far behind the edges of the pot, deep grooves form around the perimeter. Water rapidly flows past the ground into the sump, the soil is not wetted, the plant dries up. Good soil is black-brown, quickly and evenly soaked with water, when it dries out, it changes slightly in volume.
The earth can be gently tamped with your fingers to push it between the roots, fix the plant vertically. It makes no sense to leave air pockets: the earth will settle after the first watering. To help the earth settle evenly, you can gently tap the pot on a horizontal surface or tap the side of the pot with your palm.
For some plants, you will have to search or even prepare a special mixture. For phalaenopsis (the most popular orchids), you need to buy pine bark and cut it into large cubes. Cacti and other succulents are planted in a mixture containing at least half of the baking powder: stones, coarse sand, lava chips, zeolite. For the Venus flytrap (insectivorous plant), you need to buy pure high-moor peat.