Do you want more indoor plants? Or grow a spectacular flower to present as a gift? Or do you want to change the old plant for a young one? Propagation of indoor plants can help in all of the above cases. There are many different ways to do this - check the guide below.
Propagation of indoor plants by cuttings
Propagation by cuttings (vegetative method) is the most popular among flower growers. A stalk is a part of a plant that is specially cut off - it has the ability to root and grow. In floriculture, several different types of cuttings are distinguished: stem, leaf, apical, and also middle. This method is used for all ampelous plants. To obtain this kind of cutting, cut off the part of the non-lignified stem, which is located at the top. On such a cutting, there must be developed leaves in the amount of 2 to 4 pieces. Move a centimeter below the knot and make a cut. It is on this node that the roots appear first. To make rooting faster, it is recommended to treat the cut with growth-stimulating agents (phytohormones).
For rooting, the cuttings are planted in a soil mixture for young plants and then watered. To keep the humidity high, cover the container with plastic wrap.
Propagation by stem cuttings
Ficus, geraniums, all succulent plants, as well as cacti can be propagated by stem cuttings.
This type of stalk can only be cut from a healthy plant, and the cut must be made slightly below the node. Such a stalk should consist of 3 or 4 nodes and leaves should be present on it. Pay attention to the cut, it must be fresh and even. There should be no flowers or buds on the handle. If desired, the leaves from the bottom can be torn off. Rooting is carried out in moist soil, which contains a lot of sand, or a soil mixture for young plants is used for this. After the roots appear (after about 3-4 weeks), the plants are transplanted into an ordinary soil mixture. Most cuttings are rooted simply by dipping them in a glass of water.
Cuttings of geraniums, as well as succulent plants, are not covered with a film during rooting. All other plants need high humidity at this time, so they need to be covered with plastic.
As a rule, it is recommended to place the cuttings in a well-lit and warm enough place. Don’t forget to protect them from direct sunlight. These cuttings are propagated in spring and summer when the plant is growing rapidly. But there are plants that are best propagated in this way in the last summer days, for example, geranium of fuchsia. The middle stalk is considered part of the stem. Cut it off from the middle or bottom of the shoot. Such cuttings are used for the propagation of Tradescantia.
Propagation by leaf cuttings
Bushy begonia, gloxinia, uzambara violet (saintpaulia), peperomia can be propagated by leaf cuttings.
Reproduction of Saintpaulia is carried out with whole leaf plates with cuttings. A strong healthy leaf with a handle of a decent length should be cut off from the plant, then it is planted in a special soil mixture. When daughter plants are formed on the leaf plate, they will need to be separated and planted separately.
Succulent plants propagate directly with leaf plates. So, for the reproduction of streptocarpus, sansevieria, and gloxinia, part of the leaf is used. It is necessary to plant the leaf in the soil in such a way that only a small part of the leaf rises above the soil surface. In case when the particles of the leaf plate are too small, they are laid out on the surface and slightly pressed into the substrate.
Reproduction by layering
Climbing, as well as ampelous plants with long shoots, for example, ivy, chlorophytum, and others, can be propagated by layering.
This type of reproduction differs in that a young plant is formed without being separated from the mother plant. After sprouts appear on rather long shoots, they try to fix them with a wire or hairpin on the surface of a special soil mixture. Rooting takes place pretty quickly. A young plant should be separated when its root system is formed, and it begins to grow by itself.
Reproduction by shoots
You can propagate Degremona, Kalanchoe, Bryophyllum degremona, Kalanchoe tubule.
As a rule, shoots with their own roots develop at the tips of the leaf plates of these plants. Separate them with your fingers, while you need to be very careful not to damage the delicate roots. They are planted in containers filled with moist earth mixture. When the flowers grow, they should be planted in separate pots.
Reproduction by division
You can thus propagate violet, arrowroot, asparagus, fern, sansevieria, calathea.
When growing, these plants are able to form rosettes (small daughter bushes). In this regard, such a plant can be divided.
It is recommended to propagate by division in spring or June. The mother plant is removed from the soil, the soil is removed and the daughter part of the plant is carefully cut off or broken off. In this case, you need to cut where the daughter and mother flower are connected. The cut should have a healthy growth point, as well as developed roots. They are planted in a moist soil mixture. Before a young shoot appears and full rooting occurs, the soil must be constantly moist. And the plant also needs to be protected from direct rays of the sun.
Reproduction by spores
Fern can be propagated by spores. With proper care, spores appear on the seamy side of adult leaf plates. To plant spores, you need special soil, which includes crushed brick chips and peat mixture.
The substrate is poured into a pot, which should be small, low, and wide. Smooth its surface and compact slightly. After that, spores are evenly distributed on the surface of the soil. Cover the pot with glass on top, and then place it in the water poured into the container. To improve the result, instead of tap water, it is recommended to use thawed or rainwater (it is softer). Spores should be placed in a dark and warm place while making sure that there is always liquid in the container. You can notice the first shoots after 4–5 weeks. You should remove the cover from the pot after 4–8 weeks after the seedlings are strong.
Seeds can propagate several types of cacti, primrose, fuchsia, cyclamen, coleus.
Houseplants are rarely propagated by seeds because this is a rather complicated method. Also, thanks to this propagation method, it is quite possible to get a new plant shape (for example, with a different color).
In March – April, seeds of rapidly germinating plants are sown, and in the last winter weeks - those that germinate for a long time. If there is thick skin on the seeds, they will need preliminary preparation, so they can be doused with freshly boiled water or placed in a liquid for several days. You can also treat the seeds with aloe juice. This will speed up germination as well as bring flowering closer. Before sowing, the soil must be warmed up in the oven. A dredge mix consisting of sand and peat, which are taken in equal proportions, is suitable for this. You can add a small amount of vermiculite. A ready-made soil mixture intended for growing seedlings is also suitable for sowing. Fill the pot or tray with soil, level the surface, and compact slightly. Spread the seeds over the surface of the substrate (not thickly) and sprinkle them on top, so that they look slightly out. Water with a watering can with a strainer or a sprayer. Cover the container with glass or foil on top. Provide the seedlings with the required temperature regime, as well as the required level of lighting (this information can be found on the package).