Sunlight is one of the most important environmental indicators for plant life. It is absorbed by chlorophyll and used in the construction of primary organic matter. Almost all indoor plants are light-requiring and develop better in full lighting, but differ in shade tolerance. Taking into account the attitude of plants to light, it is customary to subdivide them into three main groups: light-loving, shade-tolerant and shade-indifferent.
Plants and light
Like all living organisms, plants have the ability to adapt to changing conditions. This ability is different for different species. There are plants that quite easily adapt to sufficient or excessive light, but there are also those that develop well only under strictly defined illumination parameters.
As a result of adaptation of the plant to low illumination, its appearance changes somewhat. The leaves turn dark green and grow slightly. Then their growth gradually decreases. With a lack of light, many plants stop blooming. With an excess of light, chlorophyll is partially destroyed, and the color of the leaves turns yellow-green. In strong light, plant growth slows down, they turn out to be more squat with short internodes and wide short leaves.
The appearance of a bronze-yellow color of the leaves indicates a significant excess of light, which is harmful to plants. Burns may occur if the appropriate measures are not taken urgently. Diurnal and seasonal dynamics are important characteristics of the light regime. The length of daylight hours varies throughout the year. In temperate latitudes, the shortest day is 8 hours, and the longest is more than 16 hours.
How artificial lighting affects plant flowering
By directing different intensities of blue or red light to plants, you can regulate their flowering process. Most scientists claim that red rays can speed it up, while blue or violet light slows it down.
Today, there are special LED luminaires capable of creating an optimal spectral composition and excellent light distribution.
The beneficial effect of phytochrome is the ability to control the process of flowering and germination of seeds, and the pigment does not affect different varieties of plants in the same way. For example, in short-day representatives of flora (these include some tropical, subtropical individuals), red light will inhibit flowering, but in long-day representatives growing in temperate climates, on the contrary, it will stimulate it. To achieve the opposite effect, grow the plant under the influence of far red light.
In order to equally stimulate the flowering of short-day and neutral plants, it is necessary to simultaneously influence them with rays of red and blue. It is possible to accelerate the flowering and fruiting of some plants by acting with rays of orange, green, yellow colors. Anthocyanins are responsible for the absorption of such light - dyes of different colors that are part of the cell sap. They just determine the final color of the fruits and flowers of plants.
When choosing a lamp, phytolamp or lighting panel, you need to pay attention to the following indicators:
- Where will the lamp be used - at home or in a greenhouse?
- What is the coverage area?
- What kind of light is needed: focused or diffused?
- Features of the grown plants.
Optimal lighting schemes:
- A complete scheme for replacing natural light with artificial light, allowing you to monitor the growth of plants;
- Periodic supplementary lighting scheme, allowing to lengthen daylight hours;
- An additional scheme in which artificial light complements natural light, which guarantees an increase in the efficiency of photosynthesis at any time of the year.
Indoor plant lighting
We often decorate apartments and offices with ornamental plants that do not bloom, but with their exotic foliage or shape are able to create comfort and coziness.
Having decided to use phytolamps for artificial lighting of your indoor plants, when installing them, you should adhere to the following rules:
The lamp should be positioned away from the plants so that the stem and leaves are not exposed to excessive heat radiation.With a reduction in daylight hours proportionally, he needs to increase the period of artificial supplementary lighting.
The luminous flux of the phyto lamps used must be directed directly at the plants.