A native species to Central and South America, Red Bark or Red Cinchona (Cinchona pubescens) is a usually 10 m tall deciduous tree with small, thick, and hairy branches known as an effective medicinal plant for malaria due to the quinine content of its bark. It is fast-growing and flowering starts 2 - 3 years after planting. The bark is a bitter, astringent, tonic herb and made into powder, tablets, liquid extracts and tinctures. It should be noted however that excessive use of such has various side effects like headache, rash, abdominal pain, deafness, and blindness. The quinine is also used in making hair oils, shampoo, and insecticide, and as a vulcanizing agent, and in the preparation of certain metals.