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Signs of damage
Black mold is characterized by obvious lesions that appear on the surface of ripe fruit. Lesions are light to dark brown and vary from small flecks affecting only epidermal tissue to large, more or less circular, sunken lesions with decay extending into the carpel wall and often into the seed locule. During warm, humid weather the fungus may sporulate to form a black, velvetlike layer on the surface of the sunken lesions.
How to prevent
Select resistant varieties of plants/crops that are less susceptible to important pathogens. Pathogens reproduce at higher rates on susceptible varieties compared with resistant or partially resistant varieties. Cultural practices grapeCapitalize on cultural practices to reduce the pathogen population or create conditions less favorable for the pathogen to develop. When fewer non-chemical control methods (such as sanitation) are used, resistance is more likely to develop, or will develop more rapidly. Monitor and maintain agronomic factors such as soil moisture and crop nutrition, and manage other pests, to avoid crop stress throughout the season.Inadequate or excessive fertilization with nitrogen may increase disease incidence in some crops. For example, early blight of potato and tomato and dollar spot of turfgrass are favored by nitrogen deficiency. Alternatively, the severity of spring dead spot of bermudagrass and some foliar diseases of wheat is increased with intensive nitrogen fertilization. Excessive irrigation or frequent irrigation with small amounts of water increases the incidence of many diseases by promoting spread of the pathogen and extending periods of leaf wetness, and high soil moisture. Rotate crops to allow greater flexibility in choosing different tillage practices and/or the use of fungicides with different MOAs. Be aware that applying a fungicide unnecessarily to a crop in one year in the absence of fungus could result in undesirable effects on pathogens of rotational crops. NOTE: It is possible to rotate different crops between years and, yet, still use the same fungicide MOA to control the same disease. When one crop can serve as a source of inoculum for a subsequent crop, the alternation scheme among at-risk fungicides should be continued between successive crops such that the first at-risk fungicide applied to a crop belongs to a different group than the last at-risk fungicide applied to the previous crop.Be aware that resistant plant pathogens can spread from nearby fields, highways, railroads, or utility rights-of-way areas near your farm or treated site. Local and regional cooperation in resistance management is essential. Participate in Extension programs that conduct area-wide monitoring for the presence of disease pathogens and potential resistance development. Submit reports of fungicide control failures so that the possibility of resistance can be monitored and evaluated.
Fungicides are pesticides that kill or prevent the growth of fungi and their spores. They can be used to control fungi that damage plants, including rusts, mildews and blights. They might also be used to control mold and mildew in other settings.
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