monoecious alder flowers are collected by catkins, which are formed by autumn and winter on the tree, blooming in early spring, before the leaves appear. Male flowers sit in groups of 3, rarely one at a time, on widened thyroid pedicels, spirally seating the rod of the catkins; the perianth is simple, usually 4-leafed or 4-incised; four stamens have short filaments and large double-celled anthers. Female flowers sit in pairs in the axils of fleshy scales, which by the time the fruits ripen, they become woody and form a cone characteristic of alder, reminiscent of a conifer cone. A single flower is devoid of integuments and consists of a two-celled ovary with two threadlike columns.
Alder species are common in the northern hemisphere. For Russia, the following matters: sticky alder is a large, most widespread tree with wide, notched at the top, shiny dark green leaves; gray alder - a small tree, more often - a large shrub with a smooth trunk bark and bluish or grayish-green leaves, pointed at the top; A. cordifolia Ten. and eastern alder are found in Transcaucasia, where the first species develops in the form of a rather large tree, while the second is a small tree.Alder wood is not durable, but has a fairly uniform structure, facilitating processing, and a beautiful reddish color. Smoother and thicker trunks, therefore, are used for crafts, for joinery and turning products, but the bulk of alder wood goes into firewood, which is usually valued 10-30% cheaper than birch.Alder wood lasts a long time under water and therefore finds application for small underwater structures.Alder coal was prized for making hunting gunpowder.
The peasants of Russia use alder wood to burn off soot in chimneys (especially after pine ones).
Alder shavings and sawdust are used for smoking meat and fish.