Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) is a tropical to subtropical fruit that is widely cultivated in more than 20 countries worldwide. It is normally consumed as fresh or processed and has become one of the most popular fruits because it has a delicious flavor, attractive color, and high nutritive value. Whole litchi fruits have been used not only as a food source but also for medicinal purposes. As a traditional Chinese medicine, litchi has been used for centuries to treat stomach ulcers, diabetes, cough, diarrhea, and dyspepsia, as well as to kill intestinal worms. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that whole litchi fruits exhibit antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, and antiobesity activities and show anticancer, antiatherosclerotic, hypotensive, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory activities. The health benefits of litchi have been attributed to its wide range of nutritional components, among which polysaccharides and polyphenols have been proven to possess various beneficial properties.