Pau Brasil, Caesalpinia echinata, is a slow-growing small tree up to 12 m high found in South America. It has a large rounded crown and the branches, leaves, and fruits are thorned. When fully established, it is drought-tolerant. Bark is powdered and used as treatment for diarrhoea in children. Pods and wood are sources of black dye and red dye (brazilin), respectively. The wood is heavy, tough, hard, and durable and is used for turnery, building ship and making musical instruments like bows for violins. Other common names include Brazil Wood and Pernambuco tree.