Citrus limon (lemon) is a species with valuable pharmaceutical, cosmetic and culinary (healthy food) properties. The valuable biological activity of C. limon is determined by its high content of phenolic compounds, mainly flavonoids (e.g., diosmin, hesperidin, limocitrin) and phenolic acids (e.g., ferulic, synapic, p-hydroxybenzoic acids). The essential oil is rich in bioactive monoterpenoids such as D-limonene, β-pinene, γ-terpinene. Recently scientifically proven therapeutic activities of C. limon include anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer and antiparasitic activities. In view of beneficial properties C. limon is also used in the food industry and cosmetology. Attention should be pay on safety of use and potential phototoxicity of this raw materials.