Bacterial leaf spot is caused by the bacteria Xanthomonas or Pseudomonas. Typical symptoms are black spots on the leaves or black-edged lesions and light and dark areas on the leaves, which usually develop on older leaves.
Bacterial leaf spots show as necrotic, circular or angular lesions and may have a yellowish outline or halo. Early symptoms of bacterial leaf spots show on older leaves and lesions appear water-soaked. Bacterial spots affecting dicytyledounous plants that have net-like leaf veins sometimes take a more angular shape as they are restricted by the large leaf veins. Bacterial spots on monocotyledonous plants with parallel leaf veins have a streak or striped appearance. The most obvious symptom of bacterial leaf spots are the blackening of the spots after infection. Eventually older lesions dry out and become papery in texture. Bacterial spots can also produce white, yellow, light cream or silver bacterial exudate depending on the type of bacteria, which may ooze from splitting lesions and/or from the underside of the spots. Bacterial leaf spots caused by Pseudomonas show red-brown spots which can distort the infected leaves, whilst those caused by Xanthomonas are angular or circular in shape outlined with a yellow halo.
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